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Project Implementation The Journey from Concept to Reality

Performing the Project Work

During the third and final phase of the project, the Project Management Plan is put into action, and all the necessary tasks and activities are carried out. The project manager utilizes various monitoring and control techniques to ensure that the project baselines are not only met but also maintained throughout the execution process. The primary objective of this phase is to execute all the project activities and tasks as outlined in the Project Management Plan. To achieve this, the necessary tools and techniques are applied, and the project manager takes charge of monitoring and controlling all the activities and tasks. The ultimate goal of this phase is to ensure the successful delivery of all the project deliverables.

Execute and Oversee Project Management

In order to ensure the successful execution of the Project Management Plan, it is crucial for both the Project Manager and Project Team to perform various tasks simultaneously. This involves utilizing Inputs such as the Project Management Plan itself, approved change requests, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets. Additionally, Tools & Techniques such as expert judgment, project management information system, and meetings should be employed to assist in the process. The Outputs of this comprehensive approach include deliverables, work performance data, change requests, updates to the Project Management Plan, and updates to project documents, all of which are essential components in achieving the desired outcome of the project.

Lead and oversee the implementation of project plans.

To ensure that all the different parts of a project work together smoothly, a comprehensive framework for managing the project must be created. This involves using tools, techniques, and methodologies that incorporate 10 areas of project management knowledge, 4 project phases, and 5 process groups within each phase.

The key actions involved in project integration include preparing, reviewing, and updating the project plan, making decisions, resolving conflicts, setting priorities, solving problems, managing people, maintaining communications, managing key project elements (such as time and cost), and managing external influences on the project.

As the project manager, you will have several responsibilities, including developing designs and specifications for the project, preparing and managing the overall program for the project, managing project communications, monitoring project issues, developing and implementing quality assurance programs, preparing documentation for contracts, administering contracts on behalf of the organization, liaising with external parties and agencies, and regularly reporting on all aspects of the project.

Managing and Developing the Project Team

Acquire Project Team

During the implementation phase of a project, one of the initial tasks is to acquire all the necessary human resources to create the project deliverables. It is crucial to execute this task carefully to ensure that the acquisition aligns with the Human Resource Management Plan and that the chosen staff and contractors meet the project’s requirements.

Inputs for this task include the Human Resource Management Plan, Enterprise Environmental Factors, and Organisational Process Assets. Tools and techniques used in this task are pre-assignment, negotiation, acquisition, virtual teams, and multi-criteria decision analysis.

The outputs of this task include project staff assignments, resource calendars, and updates to the Project Management Plan.

Develop Project Team

After assembling the project team, it is important to develop strategies that will help improve the members’ competencies and strengthen their interactions to enhance their overall performance. These strategies should focus on enhancing the skills of the team members and building a sense of trust and cohesiveness among them.

Inputs needed for this stage include the Human Resource Management Plan, project staff assignments, resource calendars, and tools & techniques like interpersonal skills, training, team building activities, ground rules, co-location, recognition and rewards, and personnel assessment tools.

The outputs of this stage include team performance assessments and updates on enterprise environmental factors.

Manage Project Team

As the project implementation phase progresses, it’s important to keep track of the project team’s performance to identify and address any issues that arise. This requires strong management skills, including the ability to observe team behavior, provide feedback, and resolve conflicts.

To effectively manage the project team, you’ll need to consider several inputs, including the Human Resource Management plan, project staff assignments, team performance assessments, issue logs, work performance reports, organizational process assets, and various tools and techniques such as observations, conversations, project performance appraisals, conflict management, and interpersonal skills.

The outputs of managing the project team may include change requests, updates to the Project Management Plan, updates to project documents, and updates to enterprise environmental factors and organizational process assets.

Interpersonal Skills

In order to develop the project team, the project manager requires an array of interpersonal or ‘soft skills’.

Among others, these should including:

Communication skills

Emotional intelligence

Conflict resolution

Negotiation

Influence

Team building

Group facilitation

The Duck Alignment Theory

The Duck Alignment Theory is a well-known analogy that emphasizes the importance of having all critical elements in their proper positions before starting a project. There are five critical elements that need to be aligned among project team members for a successful outcome.

Duck 1: Comprehension – It is essential that all team members understand the project’s mission and objectives.

Duck 2: Motivation – The project team should feel motivated to achieve its objective.

Duck 3: Skills – All team members should possess the necessary skills to accomplish their assigned tasks.

Duck 4: Resources – The necessary resources should be allocated to the project team before the project begins.

Duck 5: Communication – The team should have an identical understanding of the project mission and objectives, and all those affected by the project should understand its importance.

By ensuring that all critical elements are accounted for and in their proper positions, the project team can work together efficiently and effectively to achieve its goals.

Habits of Highly Effective People

As a team member, it’s important to adopt the following seven habits of highly effective people:

1. Be proactive by using resourcefulness and initiative to eliminate issues before they arise.

2. Begin with the end in mind by developing a principle-centered personal mission statement before starting any task.

3. Put first things first by making time for those things that are important to your personal mission.

4. Think win/win by establishing agreements and relationships that are mutually beneficial.

5. Seek first to understand, then to be understood. This is the most important principle of interpersonal relations.

6. Synergize by leveraging individual differences to create a more integrated team.

Effective Leadership

Effective leadership is a crucial aspect of achieving success in any organization. There are ten key elements that every successful leader must possess to inspire their team and achieve their goals. Firstly, it is important to understand that leadership begins with the leader. Your actions and behavior speak louder than your words, so it is important to lead by example and set the tone for your team.

Putting people first is crucial in effective leadership. It is important to inspire your team to work towards a common goal, rather than simply making them work. This means taking the time to get to know and respect each individual, recognizing their unique talents, and showing appreciation for their contributions.

Creating a sense of team spirit is also essential. As a leader, you should aim to build a sense of pride in the team, while also giving credit where credit is due. This means acknowledging the hard work and achievements of your team members and encouraging them to work together to achieve common goals.

A successful leader should also be a self-starter, a dreamer, and a doer. This means being open to new ideas and being willing to take calculated risks to achieve success. It also means being open to being led and finding the best solution, even if it is not your way.

A sense of humor is also vital in effective leadership. Being able to laugh at mistakes and have fun while working can help to create a positive and productive work environment. Additionally, inspiring your team to reach higher goals is crucial. As a leader, you should aim to be a balanced person who uses more applause to improve confidence and achievement, and less criticism, which can make people feel devalued.

Finally, having a clear vision and holding your main course even during stormy weather is essential. A successful leader should not let difficulties or setbacks interfere with their long-term goals. By staying focused and committed, a successful leader can inspire their team to achieve great things and drive the organization towards success.

Different Kinds of Leaders

Within the realm of leadership, there exist three distinct styles: autocratic, laissez-faire, and democratic. Autocratic leaders are known for their tight control over their team and take full responsibility for setting all goals and objectives. They demand focused effort from their team members and take the time to understand their individual motives and goals. On the other hand, laissez-faire leaders tend to exert very little control and often act as a source of information and suggestions for their team. They offer guidance when needed but trust their employees to make their own decisions. Finally, democratic leaders are known for their open communication and collaborative approach. They offer ideas and suggestions, discuss them freely, and consult with their team members before making any decisions. This style of leadership fosters a sense of unity and shared ownership among the team, leading to greater overall success.

The Situational Leadership Model.

The Situational Leadership Model proposes that leadership styles should be adaptable based on the level of maturity demonstrated by members of a project team. Hersey and Blanchard (1977) recommend that leaders switch between four styles – Supporting, Coaching, Delegating, and Directing – depending on a team member’s position in the following maturity model:

Maturity Stage 1: Team members are enthusiastic about their roles but lack the necessary competence/skill.

Maturity Stage 2: Team members possess some competence but lack confidence.

Maturity Stage 3: Team members are doing well with their skills but still require occasional support.

Maturity Stage 4: Team members have excellent skills and can work independently without supervision.

Project Implementation  The Journey from Concept to Reality image 37
Project Implementation  The Journey from Concept to Reality image 38
Project Implementation  The Journey from Concept to Reality image 39

Different Approaches to Leadership: Directing Versus Supporting

There are two types of leadership styles:

Directive and Supportive. Directive Leadership involves giving specific instructions to subordinates on what, how, when, where and with whom a task should be accomplished. This is followed up with close supervision. On the other hand, Supportive Leadership involves supporting the decision-making and problem-solving abilities of followers through praise, listening and facilitation.

Examples of Directive Leadership include setting goals or objectives, assigning roles for each person involved, planning work in advance, organizing resources, communicating job priorities, setting timelines and evaluating follower performance. The leader also shows or tells the follower how to perform a specific task and checks to see if the work is done properly and on time.

Examples of Supportive Leadership include asking for suggestions or input, facilitating problem-solving, listening to follower problems (job or non-job related), encouraging or reassuring a follower that they can complete the task, communicating information about the organization’s operation and disclosing information about oneself (job or non-job related). The leader also praises the follower for successfully completing the task.

Assigning Tasks to the Project Team

When delegating tasks to your project team, there are a few techniques that can be helpful:

1. Choose a capable team member who you believe can successfully complete the task. Make sure to support their growth and development as an individual.

2. Clearly explain the objectives and importance of the task, then step back and allow the team member to take ownership of the task.

3. Provide the necessary resources and authority for the team member to complete the task and demonstrate their ability.

4. Keep in communication with the team member, but only supervise as much as necessary.

Managing Project Communications

The process of performance reporting is a crucial step in project management, as it involves gathering all baseline data and sharing performance information with important stakeholders. This helps to track how resources are being utilized to achieve project objectives, which in turn, enables the team to make informed decisions and take corrective actions if necessary.

To carry out this process, several inputs are required, including the Communications Management Plan, Work Performance Reports, Enterprise environmental factors, and Organisational process assets. The Communications Management Plan provides a framework for how the project team will communicate with stakeholders, while Work Performance Reports provide valuable data on project progress. Enterprise environmental factors refer to external factors that may impact the project, such as economic conditions or legal requirements. Organisational process assets are the internal procedures and practices of the organization that impact project management.

Various tools and techniques are used to carry out the process of performance reporting, including Communications technology, Communication models, Communication methods, Information management systems, and Performance reporting. Communications technology includes tools such as email, video conferencing, and instant messaging, while Communication models are frameworks for how messages are conveyed. Communication methods refer to the specific channels used to convey messages, such as face-to-face meetings or written reports. Information management systems are used to collect, store, and analyze data, while Performance reporting involves creating reports that summarize project progress.

The outputs of this process are Project communications, Project Management Plan updates, Project documents updates, and Organisational process assets updates. Project communications are the messages that are shared with stakeholders, while Project Management Plan updates reflect changes in project scope, schedule, and budget. Project documents updates refer to changes in project documentation, such as risk management plans or change requests. Finally, Organisational process assets updates reflect changes in the internal procedures and practices of the organization.

Effective communication is an essential aspect of our personal and professional lives. It involves a range of communication types, including written and oral, listening, and speaking. Communication can be internal or external, formal or informal, and vertical or horizontal.

To ensure quality communication, it is crucial to express oneself simply and objectively, avoiding any ambiguity or unnecessary complexity in the message. Listening effectively is another critical component, as it allows us to understand the perspectives and ideas of others. In addition, we must contribute information effectively and with tact, respecting the opinions and feelings of others while presenting our own viewpoints.

Acknowledging and using the expertise and advice of others is also crucial to effective communication. By recognizing the contributions of others, we can build trust and enhance collaboration, leading to better outcomes. Finally, it is essential to explain what you and your team are doing, providing clarity and transparency to stakeholders and team members alike.

In summary, effective communication requires a range of skills and approaches, including clear expression, active listening, effective contribution, recognizing and respecting the expertise of others, and transparent explanation. By developing and utilizing these skills, we can enhance communication and achieve better outcomes in all areas of our personal and professional lives.

Reports and Reviews

Performance reporting is an essential tool for managing project information effectively. It allows for the generation of standardized reports or reviews at various levels, which provide critical insights into the progress of a project. The frequency of performance reporting is determined by the Project Plan and may be tied to project milestones, phase or project completion, or regularly scheduled intervals such as every two weeks, monthly, or quarterly. It is important to note that these reporting requirements are subject to organizational policies and procedures, which must be followed to ensure consistency and accuracy in reporting. Overall, performance reporting is a crucial aspect of project management that enables stakeholders to make informed decisions and stay on track towards achieving project goals.

In order to ensure that all stakeholders are kept informed about the progress of a project, it is important for the project manager to provide regular reports on project milestones. These reports are typically outlined in the Communications Management Plan and are designed to keep all parties up to date on the status of the project.

In addition to reports from the project manager, contractors may also provide similar reports upon reaching planned milestones. This helps to ensure that everyone involved in the project is aware of any progress that has been made and can work together to achieve the project’s goals.

Quarterly reporting is another important aspect of program management. This typically involves the project manager providing a detailed report on the project’s progress over the previous quarter. This helps to keep everyone on track and ensure that the project is moving forward as planned.

Completion reporting is also a mandatory requirement for each phase of the project and for the project as a whole. These reports are widely distributed to all stakeholders and provide a comprehensive overview of the progress that has been made. They also help to identify any areas where improvements could be made in order to ensure that the project is completed successfully.

Finally, exception reporting is used to report significant deviations from the project plan, schedule, and budget. This may include failure to achieve a milestone, significant trends in over or under expenditure, unforeseen changes in project team requirements, unresolved conflicts, or significant changes in risk assessment. By identifying these issues early on, the project manager can take steps to address them before they become major problems.

Report Formats:

There are several formats that can be used for project reporting. These include the Standard Project Reporting Format, Milestone Reporting Format, Quarterly Reporting Format, and Project/Phase Reporting Format.

Standard Project Reporting Format:

This format includes a summary or overview of the project, the schedule, activities summary, technical aspects, financial aspects, administrative aspects, and any problems or issues that have arisen. The activities summary includes progress to date, planned work that has not been completed, and future activities.

Milestone Reporting Format:

This format includes a summary or overview of the project, the schedule, activities summary, technical aspects, financial aspects, administrative aspects, and any problems or issues that have arisen.

Quarterly Reporting Format:

This format includes background information, progress made during the reporting period, planned progress for the next quarter, human resource aspects, financial aspects, any problems or issues that have arisen, and recommendations.

Project/Phase Reporting Format:

This format includes a summary or overview of the project, contractual performance, administrative performance, performance against scope, schedule, budget, and quality, organizational aspects, project management aspects, and lessons learned.

Control Communications

Throughout the entire project lifecycle, it is of utmost importance to monitor and control communications to ensure that all the project stakeholders’ information needs are met. This process’s primary goal is to optimize the flow of information to ensure that everyone involved in the project has the necessary information at the right time.

In order to achieve this goal, there are various inputs, including the Project Management Plan, Project Communications, Issue Log, Work Performance Data, and Organizational Process Assets. Project managers utilize tools and techniques such as Information Management Systems, Expert Judgment, and Meetings to facilitate the process.

The outputs of this process include Work Performance Information, Change Requests, Project Management Plan Updates, Project Document Updates, and Organizational Process Asset Updates. These outputs play a crucial role in ensuring that the project stakeholders remain informed and that the project progresses according to plan.

One of the most effective tools for capturing, storing, and distributing information to stakeholders is Information Management Systems. In some cases, specialist software packages may be implemented to manage these processes. The distribution formats may include Table Reporting, Spreadsheet Analysis, Presentations, Letters, and Emails. By utilizing these tools and techniques, project managers can ensure that project communications are optimized, resulting in a successful project outcome.

WHAT KIND OF LEADER ARE YOU?

If you were the leader of a work group, would you always set clear goals and expectations, frequently delegate tasks and responsibilities, and provide regular feedback? Would you also frequently encourage teamwork and collaboration, always resolve conflicts fairly and effectively, and frequently celebrate successes? Would you always be open to feedback, willing to learn from mistakes, supportive and encouraging, and honest and trustworthy?

Circle whether you would be likely to behave in the described way:

  • (A) Always 
  • (F) Frequently
  • (O) Occasionally
  • (S) Seldom 
  • (N) Never

1. I
would most likely act as the spokesperson for the group

A

F

O

S

N

2. I would encourage overtime work

A

F

O

S

N

3. I would allow members complete freedom in their
work

A

F

O

S

N

4. I would encourage the use of uniform procedures

A

F

O

S

N

5. I would permit members to use their own judgement
in solving problems

A

F

O

S

N

6. I would stress being ahead of competing groups

A

F

O

S

N

7. I would speak as a representative of the group

A

F

O

S

N

8. I would needle members for greater effort

A

F

O

S

N

9. I would try out my ideas in the group

A

F

O

S

N

10. I would let the members do their work the way
they think best

A

F

O

S

N

11. I would be working hard for promotion

A

F

O

S

N

12. I would be able to tolerate postponement and
uncertainty

A

F

O

S

N

13. I would speak for the group when visitors were
present

A

F

O

S

N

14. I would keep the work moving at a rapid pace

A

F

O

S

N

15. I would turn the members loose on a job and let
them go to it

A

F

O

S

N

16. I
would settle conflicts when they occurred in the group

A

F

O

S

N

17. I
would get swamped by details

A

F

O

S

N

18. I would represent the group at outside meetings

A

F

O

S

N

19. I would be reluctant to allow the members any
freedom of action

A

F

O

S

N

20. I would decide what should be done and how it
should be done

A

F

O

S

N

21. I would push for increased production

A

F

O

S

N

22. I would let some members have authority which I
could keep

A

F

O

S

N

23. Things would usually turn out as I predicted

A

F

O

S

N

24. I would allow the group a high degree of
initiative

A

F

O

S

N

25. I would assign group members to particular tasks

A

F

O

S

N

26. I would be willing to make changes

A

F

O

S

N

27. I would ask the members to work harder

A

F

O

S

N

28. I would trust the group members to exercise good
judgement

A

F

O

S

N

29. I would schedule the work to be done

A

F

O

S

N

30. I would refuse to explain my actions

A

F

O

S

N

31. I would persuade others that my ideas were to
their advantage

A

F

O

S

N

32. I would permit the group to set its own pace

A

F

O

S

N

33. I would urge the group to beat its previous
record

A

F

O

S

N

34. I would act without consulting the group

A

F

O

S

N

35. I
would ask that group members follow standard rules and regulations

A

F

O

S

N

To unlock the secret to your distinctive leadership style, simply adhere to the following steps:

Cherry-pick item numbers 8, 12, 17, 18, 19, 30, 34, and 35.

Mark a ‘1’ in front of the selected items that you responded with either S (seldom) or N (never).

Mark a ‘1’ in front of the items you did not select but responded with A (always) or F (frequently).

Circle the ‘1’s you have marked in front of items 3, 5, 8, 10, 15, 18, 19, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, and 35.

Sum up the circled ‘1’s. This figure denotes your score for concern for people. Jot down the score.

Add up the un-circled ‘1’s. This number signifies your score for concern for task. Record this score.

Locate your score on the concern for tasks dimension on the left-hand arrow, then proceed to the right-hand arrow and find your score on the concern for people dimension. Draw a straight line to intersect the two scores. The shared leadership arrow will reveal your score on that dimension.

By adhering to these steps, you will gain invaluable insight into your unique leadership abilities and how you can harness them to their full potential to lead others.

Project Implementation  The Journey from Concept to Reality image 40
Source: Leadership; Sarros, Butchatsky 1995

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