Key Themes in 2 Corinthians

1. The cross of Christ, embodied in the suffering of his apostle, unmasks the erroneous teaching of “false apostles” and “servants of Satan.”11:13–15
2. In fulfillment of Jer. 31:31–34 and Ezek. 36:26–27, Paul is a servant of the new covenant (2 Cor. 3:6), whose ministry and message of the cross mediates the Spirit of the living God and God’s righteousness to believers.3:3, 6–9; 5:14–15, 21
3. Endurance amid adversity and Christlike behavior, both made possible by the grace of God and modeled by Paul himself, are the greatest display of God’s presence, power, and glory in this fallen world.1:12–14; 6:1, 14–7:1; 9:13–15; 12:7–10; 13:4
4. The presence and power of the Spirit transforms believers into the image of God seen in Christ, which is the dawning of the new creation characterized by the righteousness of God. Believers therefore embody the new creation of the new covenant by living for the sake of others. This is made possible by the reconciliation with God brought about by the cross.3:18; 4:4, 6; 5:15, 17–21
5. Repentance expresses itself in holiness, which is defined as a purity-producing love for God and his church and a unity-creating love for one’s neighbor.6:14–7:1; chs. 8–9
6. Christ, as Savior, is also the universal Judge, who will one day pass judgment on all people according to their deeds. In anticipation of this day, the Spirit transforms those in whom he dwells as a guarantee of the “eternal weight of glory” to come for believers at the resurrection.1:14, 22; 3:6, 8–9, 18; 5:5, 9–11

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